1. Discuss the contributions of India or China to the development of the global economy and technological innovation, as well as the role of Islamic societies in spreading goods, knowledge, and technologies. How did this pattern help countries in northwestern Europe rise to positions of global power?
3. Compare and contrast the Russian Empire and Tokugawa Japan, considering the policies, motives, goals, and tactics that rulers in each country adopted in order to consolidate their power and transform society and culture. What were the benefits and drawbacks to expansion and isolation.