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First, choose, read, research, summarize, observe, analyze, gather evidence, and develop a thesis statement.

1. Choose. You may write about the following passage from Chapter 25 of the novel OR choose your own from elsewhere in Northanger Abbey, as long as it is not from Chapter 1 (we already went over that in class). If you choose a different passage, find something that is 1 to 4 paragraphs long.

The visions of romance were over. Catherine was completely awakened. Henry’s address, short as it had been, had more thoroughly opened her eyes to the extravagance of her late fancies than all their several disappointments had done. Most grievously was she humbled. Most bitterly did she cry. It was not only with herself that she was sunk—but with Henry. Her folly, which now seemed even criminal, was all exposed to him, and he must despise her forever. The liberty which her imagination had dared to take with the character of his father—could he ever forgive it? The absurdity of her curiosity and her fears—could they ever be forgotten? She hated herself more than she could express. He had—she thought he had, once or twice before this fatal morning, shown something like affection for her. But now—in short, she made herself as miserable as possible for about half an hour, went down when the clock struck five, with a broken heart, and could scarcely give an intelligible answer to Eleanor’s inquiry if she was well. The formidable Henry soon followed her into the room, and the only difference in his behaviour to her was that he paid her rather more attention than usual. Catherine had never wanted comfort more, and he looked as if he was aware of it.
The evening wore away with no abatement of this soothing politeness; and her spirits were gradually raised to a modest tranquillity. She did not learn either to forget or defend the past; but she learned to hope that it would never transpire farther, and that it might not cost her Henry’s entire regard. Her thoughts being still chiefly fixed on what she had with such causeless terror felt and done, nothing could shortly be clearer than that it had been all a voluntary, self-created delusion, each trifling circumstance receiving importance from an imagination resolved on alarm, and everything forced to bend to one purpose by a mind which, before she entered the abbey, had been craving to be frightened. She remembered with what feelings she had prepared for a knowledge of Northanger. She saw that the infatuation had been created, the mischief settled, long before her quitting Bath, and it seemed as if the whole might be traced to the influence of that sort of reading which she had there indulged.
Charming as were all Mrs. Radcliffe’s works, and charming even as were the works of all her imitators, it was not in them perhaps that human nature, at least in the Midland counties of England, was to be looked for. Of the Alps and Pyrenees, with their pine forests and their vices, they might give a faithful delineation; and Italy, Switzerland, and the south of France might be as fruitful in horrors as they were there represented. Catherine dared not doubt beyond her own country, and even of that, if hard pressed, would have yielded the northern and western extremities. But in the central part of England there was surely some security for the existence even of a wife not beloved, in the laws of the land, and the manners of the age. Murder was not tolerated, servants were not slaves, and neither poison nor sleeping potions to be procured, like rhubarb, from every druggist. Among the Alps and Pyrenees, perhaps, there were no mixed characters. There, such as were not as spotless as an angel might have the dispositions of a fiend. But in England it was not so; among the English, she believed, in their hearts and habits, there was a general though unequal mixture of good and bad. Upon this conviction, she would not be surprised if even in Henry and Eleanor Tilney, some slight imperfection might hereafter appear; and upon this conviction she need not fear to acknowledge some actual specks in the character of their father, who, though cleared from the grossly injurious suspicions which she must ever blush to have entertained, she did believe, upon serious consideration, to be not perfectly amiable.
Her mind made up on these several points, and her resolution formed, of always judging and acting in future with the greatest good sense, she had nothing to do but to forgive herself and be happier than ever; and the lenient hand of time did much for her by insensible gradations in the course of another day. Henry’s astonishing generosity and nobleness of conduct, in never alluding in the slightest way to what had passed, was of the greatest assistance to her; and sooner than she could have supposed it possible in the beginning of her distress, her spirits became absolutely comfortable, and capable, as heretofore, of continual improvement by anything he said. There were still some subjects, indeed, under which she believed they must always tremble—the mention of a chest or a cabinet, for instance—and she did not love the sight of japan in any shape: but even she could allow that an occasional memento of past folly, however painful, might not be without use

2. Read. Read your passage. Read it again. Then read it again. Then read it out loud. Then do that again. Then do that again.

3. Summarize the passage in your own words.

4. Look up confusing or difficult words in the dictionary.

5. Observe. Look for how the author uses language. You might consider:

• imagery
• tone
• structure
• punctuation
• sound
• rhyme
• repetition
• syntax or sentence structure
• unusual words or tenses
• patterns
• contrasts or surprises

6. Analyze your passage. From your observations, draw some conclusions. Does a repeated or surprising word mean a certain concept or idea is emphasized? Does a pattern emerge over the course of the passage? Are there any contrasts or surprises that change the meaning of the passage, now that you have spent a significant amount of time? Consider how the author uses language to, for example, craft a mood, explore a theme, or engage with a political issue. Then, ask how your passage contributes to the whole of the work at hand.

7. Gather evidence. What are the most important pieces of evidence? List those out for yourself. Find at least 5 quotes from the passage that can help you communicate your observations in your paper.

8. Develop a thesis statement. If you want to test out if your thesis is working try plugging into the following magical thesis statement.
• By looking at _____, we can see _____, which most readers don’t see; this is important because _____.

Now, you are ready to write.

9. First, write a 5-page close reading paper with a thesis. In it, use your observations, analysis, and evidence to make broader conclusions about a theme or idea. All work, as always, should be entirely your own. Please include:

• Your name
• Paper title
• 12-point font
• 1” margins
• Double spacing
• Clearly placed and cited quotations
• An introduction with a motive: your first paragraph should state why you are reading this particular passage. What is interesting about it? Why should I read further? Revisiting your summary might help here.
• A thesis statement clearly laying out the argument of your paper.
• Body paragraphs: your internal paragraphs should work through your observations and analysis of the passage. Use quotes to make your case.
• Conclusion: what have you learned about the passage from your close reading? How do your observations and analysis situate it in a larger theme or idea?

10. Then, write a 1-page reflection. What was it like choosing, observing, and analyzing this passage? What did you learn? What (if anything) was hard about it? What (if anything) felt easy or engaging?



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